In 2006, The Origin of the Noun Typhoon and Its Naming Principle
discussed the historical evolution of the term "typhoon".
According to the author, in ancient times, people called
typhoon as hurricane, and it was not until the late Ming and
early Qing dynasties that people began to use the name of
wind racing. In 1956, when the name of wind racing was reduced to
“typhoon”, while a hurricane started meaning a cold wave or
a non-typhoon wind.
There are two versions of the origin of typhoons. The first
one is "transliteration theory", which includes three origins:
“da feng(gales)” in Cantonese, “feng shai” in fujian dialect
and “Typhon”, the name of a character in the Greek epic
History of Theocracy during the Dutch occupation of Taiwan. The
second one is "origin theory", that is, people name a typhoon
according to its origin.
A mature typhoon, according to its structure and the weather
brought, is divided into three parts, namely the eye of the
typhoon, wind and rain region of the vortex, and the outer wind
region. The eye is located in the center of the typhoon, with a
diameter of about 5,000 to 10,000 meters.
China is the world’s few countries who affected most by tropical cyclones,
seven typhoons make landfall in China every year averagely.
The economic loss caused by the typhoon alone amounted to 24.6 billion yuan.
The rainstorm and storm caused by the typhoon made great damage to the
coastal areas of eastern China.
Typhoon is a destructive weather system with strong destructive power,
and its harmfulness mainly has three aspects:
One is the risk of high winds. The maximum wind force near the typhoon
center is above level 8, which can cause severe damage.
The second is rainstorm disaster. Typhoons are one of the most powerful
rainstorm systems. In areas where typhoons have passed, they usually produce
rain of 150mm~300mm, and a few typhoons can produce heavy rainstorms more
than 1,000 millimeters. In 1975, the third typhoon in the upper reaches of
the Huaihe River caused heavy rain, which created the extreme rainstorm in
mainland China and formed the "75.8" flood in Henan.
The third is storm surge disaster. A general typhoon can add water to the
coastal waters, and the most powerful water on the coast of Jiangsu can reach
up to 3 meters. The "9608" and "9711" typhoon added water, making coastal areas
of Jiangsu along the Yangtze River reach the highest tide in history.
When typhoon passes through, it often brings severe storm and heavy weather,
which causes the sea surface waves and serious threat to navigation safety.
The storm surge caused by the typhoon may destroy crops, construction facilities
and so on, causing great loss of people's lives and property.