Practice indicates that some debris flows can be avoided. So, how exactly
can we avoid the damage of landslides? It can be done in the following aspects:
Firstly, when we build bridges and culverts, we should cross over
from the top of the debris flow, allowing mudslide to be
excreted below it to avoid debris flow. This is a common measure
for railway and highway traffic departments to ensure traffic safety.
Secondly, when we construct tunnels, burrows or aqueducts, we'd better
make debris flow pass under it so that the mudslide can cross over
it from the top. This is another major project of railway and highway
in debris flow area.
Thirdly, build some certain protection constructions to the bridge,
tunnels, roadbed and riverways along mudslides concentration mountains
in areas that the debris flow happens frequently to resist or eliminate
scouring of subject building, impact and the harm of lateral erosion
and burying of debris flow. Protective buildings mainly include:
slope protection, retaining wall, bank and groyne etc.
Fourthly, improve the flow potential of landslide and increase
the drainage capacity of bridges and other buildings so that
the debris flow can be discharged smoothly according to
design intention. The drainage works include the diversion dike,
chute and the beam embankment.
Fifthly, build some project to hinder and retain to control the
solid material of debris flow and heavy rain, flood flow,
weakening the flow of debris flow, water run-off and energy to
reduce the scouring and impact of construction projects in downstream of
debris flow as well as the harm of engineering measures such as burying.
The blocking measures include: slag dam, silting field,
support engineering, and flood diversion project. For the prevention
and control of debris flow, a combination of measures is often adopted,
which is more effective than single measures.