The ground fissure is the abbreviation of the ground
crack. It is a linear fracture phenomenon in surface
rock and soil. The influencing factors are: surface
rock.The layer and soil are affected by natural factors
(crustal activity, water effect, etc.) or human
factors (pumping, irrigation, excavation, etc.).
Ground fissure can be groundOne of the precursory phenomena
of earthquake, or the residual deformation of the
earthquake on the ground. The latter is also known
as an earthquake crack.
There are few studies on the types of ground
fissures abroad, mainly the research and analysis
of the dynamic causes of ground fissures. It is
the internal and external power of the earth's crust.
It can be divided into three main types: structural
genetic ground fissure, groundwater mining cause,
ground fissure, and tectonic and groundwater exploitation.
Domestic researchers have carried out a complex but
meticulous classification of domestic cracks. Some
scholars regard ground cracks as internal force cracks
and natural crevices, some are divided into internal
forces caused by ground fissures, external forces caused
by ground fissure and human engineering economic
activity causes and ground fissures; some are
divided into human beings. There are two major
categories of active ground cracks and natural
factors. In human activities, there are two types
of cracks in the mining subsidence and the deformation
ground cracks in the buildings. Under natural factors,
they are subdivided into two types of fractures, such
as fractured tectonic ground cracks, tilting structures
or rising tectonic zones, which are divided into a dry
ground crack and a structural expansion under the latter.
There are five types of ground cracks, and some
are divided into two types: tectonic ground fissures
and non tectonic fractures, in which the tectonic
ground cracks are dominated by natural internal force,
the dynamic type is fault movement and regional micro
fracture opening, and the non tectonic movement is
subdivided into the ground fissure dominated by human
activity and the natural external force as the leading
According to the causes of ground fissures, they
are often classified into the following categories:
1) Earthquake cracks are caused by strong vibrations
on the ground caused by various earthquakes.
2) The basement fracture activity cracks are due
to the long-term peristaltic movement of the
basement fracture, which gradually cracks the
rock mass or soil layer and forms on the surface.
3) The open cracks in the hidden fissures are the
soils with insidious cracks. Under the action
of surface water or groundwater scouring and
submarine erosion, the materials in the fissures
are carried away by water, and the fissures are
opened upward and penetrated.
4) Leakage cracks in loose soils are due to erosion,
subsurface erosion, softening, and liquefaction of
surface water or groundwater, which cause some
particles in loose soil to be lost with water,
and the soil body is cracked.
5) Loess wet-fall cracks are caused by subsidence
due to the soaking of surface water or groundwater in
the loess layer.
6) Swelling and contraction cracks are due to the dry
and wet climate changes that cause swelling and
shrinkage deformation of expansive soil or silty
7) Ground subsidence cracks are caused by rock and
soil cracking during land subsidence caused by
ground subsidence or overexploitation of groundwater
and underground mining of mines.
8)Landslide cracks are caused by surface cracking
caused by slope sliding.