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Extended Reading(1)

2020-02-27  |   Editor : houxue2018  

Reasons for the particularly severe earthquake and tsunami disasters in Indonesia

(1)Large earthquake magnitude and shallow hypocenter

The earthquake was a major one. Earthquake occurred at the junction of the Australian plate and the Indian Ocean plate, which were global tectonic plates. In the seismic area, the Indian Ocean plate, relative to the Myanmar Plate, moved northwest at a velocity of 6 cm/a and convergence of oblique subduction in the Sunda Trough. The long-term subduction of the Indian Ocean plate beneath the Myanmar plate accumulated tremendous stress and energy, which suddenly released and caused violent shaking of the earth's crust.

Because of the shallow hypocenter (only 10 km), the strong disturbance to the sea water caused a huge tsunami.

(2)There was no tsunami warning system and no early warning mechanism in the affected areas.

Neither country in the Indian Ocean had established a tsunami warning system and lacked an early warning mechanism,when a major earthquake triggered a tsunami, the local government and people suffered the disaster of "toppling" without any knowledge of prevention and refuge. In order to prevent the tsunami, many countries in the Pacific Ocean had established the Pacific Tsunami Warning System as early as the 1960s, the International Oceanographic Commission had formed ‘‘the International Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning System.’’ Coordination of tsunami warning system operations had been carried out and there had been some successful tsunami warnings, thus greatly reducing casualties in the event of tsunami.

(3)Potential risk of earthquake and tsunami in disaster-stricken areas was underestimated.

Although the earthquake and tsunami had been recorded in the history of the countries , it was not enough to estimate such a large disaster and to cooperate actively with international tsunami research institutes and countries with early warning capabilities.

(4)Insufficient social preparedness for disaster prevention in disaster-stricken areas.

Some disaster-stricken areas were underdeveloped and coastal buildings lacked corresponding anti-tsunami measures, some public buildings such as tourism and vacation on the seashore lacked of wave-proof and safe-haven facilities, no good disaster preparedness in advance.

In addition, transportation and communication facilities were backward. after the disaster , disaster situation could not be transmitted in time, delaying the post-disaster relief work and objectively aggravating the disaster degree.

(5) Disaster-stricken areas were in the tourism-peak season, weak awareness of disaster prevention.

The earthquake and tsunami took place at Christmas this year, which was the tourism-peak season in the disaster-stricken areas, tourists from all over the world gathered at the seaside, the occupancy rate of hotels had reached 100%, tourists were in a relaxed and leisure state, local people were busy receiving, awareness of disaster prevention is very low.

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