Among various capability evaluation models, they can be divided into internal and external evaluations, personal ability evaluation and organizational ability evaluation according to different research perspectives of valuers, and can also be divided into managerial evaluation and improved evaluation according to differences in standards.
Emergency capacity evaluation can be either internal or external, no matter which is the comprehensive capacity evaluation of the organization or system, and the evaluation results can be used to discover the soft spots in emergency management. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative methods, multivariate combination evaluation, and statistical methods such as factor analysis and principal component analysis are often used to construct and verify evaluation models. At present, the theoretical research and practice of comprehensive evaluation methods for emergency response capacity have made great breakthroughs, which not only improved the original methods, but also brought up innovative new methods. For example, the earliest score evaluation, combination index evaluation, weighted summation method, efficiency coefficient method, and the later multivariate statistical evaluation method, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, gray systematic evaluation method, AHP methods are widely used in data envelopment analysis and artificial neural network method.In the use of evaluation methods, it became more and more complicated, mathematical and multidisciplinary.
The United States is the first and most completed country in the world to carry out the emergency response capacity evaluation. In addition, Japan has carried out remarkable research and practice on emergency response capacity evaluation. After setting the evaluation indexes, the United States and Japan add the scores of the second-level indexes under the first-level indexes according to the actual data to obtain the scores of the first-level indexes.The index of each first-level is multiplied by the relevant weight, which is the evaluation result.This approach is straightforward and easy to operate, but is only applicable to the comparison of multiple samples and to evaluate at the national level. However, as the grade of membership and the comment hierarchy space are not used in the evaluation, this method is not suitable for the judgment of a single sample.
In China, with the deepening of the research on mult-iindex comprehensive evaluation methods, the research methods of emergency response capacity evaluation are also being expanded. Zheng Shuangzhong and others used the improved AHP to calculate the weight coefficient of each first-level index in the index system, and used the 75th percentile as the core criteria. Liu Jian used the Kappa method to analyze the setting of the urban emergency response capability evaluation system, and then used the G1 method to analyze and put forward the urban emergency response capability evaluation index system. The advantage of this method is that there is no need to carry out consistency test, or to use examples to calculate the index weight. Han Chuanfeng used the method of combination of AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to calculate the weight of each index. Huang Dianjian, Wu Zongzhi and others studied the evaluation method of urban major emergency practice based on fuzzy centralization theory. Based on that statistical theory, they calculated the synthetic weights of each index, and conducted reliability analysis of the weights. They also obtained the evaluation results of emergency adaptability by using linear weighting model. In view of the problem that the worst key index is not fully considered in the current emergency response capability evaluation model, which often determines the success of the emergency response work, Zhang Yongling designed a level by level evaluation model of emergency response capability based on Delphi method and minimum discrimination.
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