As for the prediction of mountain torrents’ formation
and evolution under different regional conditions,
different experiences or mathematical models have been
developed and established. The range and scale of the
mountain torrents are comprehended by exercising mountain
torrents' formation and evolution process. Generally, a
statistical model for mountain flood formation is
established by considering rainfall and terrain factors.
In recent years, large-scale meteorological models have
been used to simulate rainfall processes and integrate
with the flash flood formation models.Such as the high
accuracy regional atmospheric model system (RAMS) and
the synchronous satellite imagery simulation of rainfall,
rainstorm unit processes and thermodynamic process models.
Among them, the simulation results of meteorological models
are more accurate on large scales, while dose worse on small
and medium scales. The prediction of the formation and
evolution of mountain torrents is generally based on the
hydrological, meteorological and runoff models which predict
the movement process of mountain torrents in space, including
the empirical statistical model, the distributed hydrological
model based on the motion wave and diffusion wave (or its variant
form and approximation), as well as the application of one
dimensional hydrodynamic model.
In particular, the roll wave formed on steep slopes has
also been studied, and a one-dimensional hydrodynamic
model for mountain rivers has been developed.
In recent years, China has made some progress in flood
forecasting. With the aid of distributed mechanism model
and digital basin platform which developed the flood
forecasting system, the simulation model of integration
of runoff and sediment, slope collapse and river transport,
are integrated to predict the runoff process, water sediment
confluence and evolution process on regional scale.