A large majority of people buried during the earthquake survived by
self and mutual rescue. According to statistics, the relationship between
rescue time and rate is: 95% in half an hour: 81% in the first day, 53%
in the second day, 36.7% in the third day, 19% in the fourth day and 7.4%
in the fifth day.
How to find and rescue the buried people?
(1) Utilizing rescue dogs and the determination of trace carbon dioxide 1
can be very convenient for the location of the person in distress.
(2) Listen to the cries, groans and percussion of the trapped people. The
way to listen is: lie down, closely to your ears when quiet at night, and
tap (or whistle) while listening.
(3)Observing the situation of ruins overlapping and pressing, especially
whether there is living space where people live; also observing whether
there are any traces or bloodstains of people crawling in the ruins.
(4) Analyse the original structure, use, material, level and collapse
condition of the collapsed building, and judge the survival condition
of the buried people.
How to do if you are pressed?
(1) After the earthquake, aftershocks will continue to occur, and your
conditions may deteriorate further, you should try to improve your
conditions, stabilize and try to escape
(2)Try to avoid the delicate collapses, suspenders or other dangerous
materials above the body.
(3)Remove movable debris such as broken bricks and tiles, expand the
space of movement, and pay attention not to reluctantly move, so as
to prevent the surrounding debris from collapsing further.
(4) Try to support the broken walls with bricks, wooden sticks and so
on, so as to prevent them from being buried again during aftershocks.
(5) Do not use indoor facilities, including power and water supplies
etc.or open fire; when you smell gas, poisonous odor or too much dust,
try to cover your mouth and nose with wet clothes.
(6) Do not yell, keep up your strength, and use percussion for help.
Self rescue principle
(1) Try to cover the mouth, nose and head with wet towels, clothing
or other cloth, prevent inhalation of dust and suffocation.
(2) Try to move your hands and feet as much as possible, remove dirt
from your face and objects on your body.
(3) Supporting the weight above the body with moving objects around
to avoid further collapse; enlarging the space of movement and keeping
(4)When several people are buried at the same time, they should
encourage each other, plan together, cooperate with each other and take
rescue actions when necessary.
(5)Search for and open up passageways, try to escape from danger, and
move towards the brightest, safer and more spacious areas.
(6)For the time being, it is impossible to escape from danger, look for
water and substitutes, try to prolong survival time and wait for rescue.
(7)Keep your physical strength, do not shout for help aimless. In the quiet
surroundings, or when someone is outside, knock on the wall with bricks,
iron pipes, etc. to convey information to the outside world. When someone is
not far away, call for help again.
(8) In the mountains, we must keep away from the steep cliffs so as to avoid
landslides and collapses; we should also leave the great water channels and
the two sides of the river, where are prone to larger landslips or collapses.
Mutual rescue principle
(1)Save places where more buried people firstly, that is to say, more before less.
(2) Rescue the nearest people firstly, that is to say, first near then far.
(3) Save the people who are easy to save first, that is to say, from easy to difficult.
(4) Rescue slight injuries and strong people firstly, expand rescue teams,
that is to say, the first light after.
(5) If medical staff are buried, priority rescue and increase rescue force.
(6) First save lives, then save people. In the Tangshan earthquake, a rural woman
in order to save more people, each saved a person, only their head exposed, so
that they can breathe, and then immediately to save others, as a result, she saved
dozens of people in a very short time.
How to ensure his safety when digging the buried people?
(1) Using tools to dig buried objects, when approaching the buried people, cannot
dig with sharp tools.
(2) We must pay special attention not to destroy the original supporting conditions,
so as not to cause new damage to the buried people.
(3) In the process of digging, the enclosed space should be communicated with the
outside world as soon as possible, so that the buried people can breathe fresh air.
(4) When the dust is too much in the process of digging, can spray water to dust fall,
so as to avoid the suffocation of rescuers and savers.
(5) In the process of digging, take water, food, or medicine to the buried people to
enhance their vitalities.
How to rescue and care?
(1) First, expose the head, quickly clean the dust in the mouth and nose, prevent
asphyxia,and then expose the chest and abdominal cavity, if there is asphyxia,
artificial respiration should be carried out immediately. Cannot dig with sharp
(2) For survivors buried in ruins longer time, transport drinking water firstly,
properly strengthen the support above the buriers to prevent the new collapse
of the heavy objects above them in the rescue process. Then dig while supporting,
pay attention to protecting the eyes of survivors, cover the eyes with dark cloth
after being rescued, avoid strong light stimulation.
(3) When the buried time is long and it is difficult to rescue, we can try to
transport drinking water, food and medicine to the buried people to maintain
(4) When a buried person is unable to come out, inquire、observe and determine
the injury carefully；For a person with cervical and lumbar injuries, do not
lift him rigidly, three or four people hold the head, back, buttock and legs of
the injured, put him on a rigid stretcher or door plank and fix him with cloth
(5) The buried people with limb fractures or joints damage, should use local
materials, splint is fixed with sticks, branches, cardboard and so on. Expose
the end of injured limbs to observe the circulation of blood when fixing.
(6) When moving a patient suffering from dyspnea, he should use prone position
and turn his head to one side, so as not to cause suffocation.
(7) For those critically ill survivors who are still alive, they should be
treated on the scene as far as possible, and then rushed to the hospital.