China is one of the countries which suffered the most from earthquake
disaster, the serious reasons are following:
（1）Most of the world's earthquakes occur in the oceans, but the main cause
of disasters to mankind is the earthquakes that occurred on the mainland.
China's land area accounts for only 1/14 of the world. But the mainland
earthquake accounts for 1/3 ~ 1/4 of the global continent earthquake, it
has the largest number of earthquakes on the continent.
（2）Compared to the United States and Japan, because of economic strength
and other factors, the quality of the building in our country is poor, low
antiseismic level. Casualties were mainly caused by the collapse of the
building. High quality buildings can effectively reduce casualties.
（3）Poor hazard awareness, heavy ideological dependence. It is important
to enhance citizens’ awareness of earthquake prevention and disaster
reduction, and improve citizens' ability of self and mutual medical aid
in earthquake disasters. Japan is also home to the most powerful earthquakes,
the biggest difference between China and Japan is the weak consciousness
of Chinese citizens.
Earthquake disaster in China is so serious, the task of earthquake
prevention and disaster reduction is arduous. China’s earthquake prevention
and disaster reduction must take the road of mainly prevention and
comprehensive disaster reduction. Prevention should include improving
the ability to withstand earthquakes, carry out monitoring and
forecasting work scientifically.
Anti-seismic fortification of buildings
（1）Main work and foreign experience
All earthquake disasters are basically caused by insufficient seismic
fortification standards, improper design, poor construction, poor operation
and maintenance of buildings, and lack of awareness of disaster prevention.
Therefore, it is very important to do well in seismic fortification of
buildings. Mainly do the following four jobs.
One is to do well the foundation work of seismic fortification.
The second is to improve the supervision of seismic fortification of
construction projects. The related competent departments in charge of
construction projects, especially major ones, strictly check the site
selection, design and construction, taking seismic fortification as an
important part of project quality management. For example, seismic safety
assessment is carried out for a series of major projects such as the Three
Gorges Project, Daya bay nuclear power plant, West-to-East Gas Transmission
Project, Qinghai-Tibet Railway and other projects that may cause serious
Third, key areas under surveillance for the earthquake actively carry out
reinforcement work for buildings with weak seismic capacity, so that the
seismic capacity is significantly improved.
Fourth, strengthening the guidance of building houses for farmers and
the seismic fortification of public facilities in villages and towns.
Earthquake-resistant structure is the most direct and effective way to
reduce earthquake losses. From the global survey of major earthquake
disasters can be found, more than 95 percent of casualties were caused
by damage or collapse of buildings, therefore, it is very important to
improve the shock resistance of buildings.
The experience of foreign countries is use for reference to our earthquake
prevention work. Japan is also a quake-prone country, due to strong awareness
of earthquake prevention and disaster reduction, the seismic performance
of Japanese buildings is generally high. Yet as time passed, seismic
performance of buildings will decline, therefore, the Japanese also pay great
attention to regular〝physical examination〞for the building.
The Japan aseismic structure association is based on the relevant
provisions of the « Building reference method », formulated
« Standards for the maintenance and management of earthquake-resistant
buildings », it is requested that the professional technical personnel
registered in the association conduct "physical examination" for the aseismic
building. There are four types of physical examination, that is, inspection
upon completion, regular inspection, emergency inspection and detailed
inspection. In particular, regular inspection is worth mentioning: Technicians
in addition to check the anti-seismic layer every year, a comprehensive
inspection of the building is carried out after fifth years, tenth years and
every 10 years after the completion of the building, the inspections contents
include the performance of anti-seismic materials, the presence or absence of
objects in the periphery of anti-seismic layers that hinder the horizontal
movement of buildings, and the presence or absence of damage to equipment and
Public facilities are widely used, , which may lead to heavy casualties if
something goes wrong, so Japan pays special attention to regular inspection
of public facilities, establish a "regular investigation report system for
special buildings". Theatres, cinemas, supermarkets, hospitals, schools,
gymnasiums, art galleries and hotels of a certain scale are all special
buildings. According to« Building reference method », special buildings
need to be inspected regularly by senior architects or professionals recognized
by the ministry of land and communications, main contents of inspection include:
Whether the foundation of the building land is sinking or not: Whether the
structural strength of foundation, column, beam, wall, exterior wall, roof
is aging or not: Arrangement, maintenance and management of facilities and
places of refuge, etc.
Japanese experts point out, there is no once for all ways to keep buildings
anti- seismic behavior, parties concerned need to stick to "regular physical
examination" for a long time, pay attention to maintenance management, take
timely measures after finding problems. Only in this way, we count on earthquake
proof construction can withstand the test of a major earthquake.
Some Iranian earthquake experts believe that, shockproof ability of the building
is not only related to macroscopic factors such as the structure and foundation
of the building, but also related to micro design factors, such as window glass
protection、furnishings of bookshelf and cabinet and design of droplight, etc. ,
all kinds of factors must be considered in order to minimize the earthquake disaster.
Furthermore, for office buildings, schoolhouses and other places where people
are concentrated, Iranian authorities have also formulated some security measures,
for example, hanging objects such as decorative furnishings and lamps shall be
inspected, fixed and repaired regularly; Do not place heavy or sharp objects on
such as file cabinets, etc.; Internal communication systems such as loudspeakers
must be effective, facilitate evacuation as soon as possible in the event of
a hazard; Firefighting apparatus such as fire extinguishers must be effective,
convenient for use in earthquake fire; Maps showing the locations of all buildings
and escape routes should be provided.
（2）Building seismic fortification
The seismic performance of buildings in China is not high, " tofukasu" projects
caused by cutting corners during construction.The transformation of the original
building structure in the decoration of the house is the factor of the collapse
of the building,which will increase the casualties and losses of people in
earthquake disasters. Perhaps the major earthquakes in recent years sound
the alarm for building and decorating houses in China. We should reflect on
how many caused by natural disasters and man-made in China's earthquake
The earthquake is the most serious disaster causing casualties and property
damage. Therefore, it is very important to strengthen earthquake prevention
and disaster reduction and take the following measures. Earthquakes are
difficult to predict, and zoning standards are also difficult to unify, but
anti-seismic standards can be improved, from planning, design and construction
to building quality acceptance. The supervision of a series of links can be
upgraded and management can be put in place to reduce the loss of life and
property caused by disasters.
The seismic fortification of buildings is a measure to prevent earthquake
disasters during the construction of projects.
1)The relationship between building structure and seismic resistance
Steel structure seismic level★★★★★
The steel structure is the main structural material of steel. The
steel is characterized by high strength and light weight. Meanwhile,
due to the uniformity and obdurability of steel materials, large
deformation is possible, which can bear the dynamic load well and
have great anti-seismic capability. The cost of steel building is
relatively high, and the current application is not very common.
Shear wall structure seismic level★★★★
Shear wall refers to a wall added to a frame structure to resist
horizontal shear forces. The horizontal shear force to be resisted by
high-rise buildings is mainly caused by earthquake, therefore, shear
wall is also called aseismic wall. Shear wall structure is widely
used in high-rise buildings (residential buildings with 10 floors and
above or buildings with a height of over 24m).
Seismic level of frame structure★★★
A framework consisting of a load-bearing beam column reinforced by
reinforced concrete, then use hollow bricks or precast aerated concrete,
ceramsite and other lightweight boards as partitions for assembly. Wall
is mainly to play the role of enclosure and isolation, as the wall does
not bear weight, so it can be made of various light materials.
Masonry structure seismic class★★
"Brick" in brick concrete structure refers to a building material of
uniform size, also includes other sizes of special-shaped clay bricks,
hollow bricks and so on. 〝Mixing〞refers to the mix of reinforced
concrete prepared in a certain proportion by rebar, cement, sand and
water, including floor slab, lintel, staircase, balcony. These
accessories are combined with brick load-bearing walls, so called
masonry structures. The seismic performance of masonry buildings
is relatively weak compared with the above three.
Home decoration should also be quakeproof, in the renovation to pay
special attention, some places are firmly not to change, or else it
will be very dangerous to damage the whole seismic design of the house.
In decorating, it is extremely dangerous to smash down load-bearing
wall. A load-bearing wall is a wall supporting the weight of the
upper floor, the wall is black on the engineering drawing. If it is
knocked off, the whole structure will be destroyed: Making holes in
the load-bearing walls can also damage a building's seismic resistance.
If you see steel in the wall when you smash it, it's a shear wall,
it's not allowed to change. Moreover, you can't change the size of
doors and Windows on any wall in your room, expand the original size
of doors and Windows or build another door, will also cause local
cracks in buildings, which will seriously affect the anti-seismic
capability, thus shorten the life of the building.
The wall between room and balcony, has one door one window generally,
the wall below the window is called "Additional weight wall", which
absolutely immobile. Tear down this wall, will make the bearing capacity
of the balcony decline, causing the balcony to fall.
2） Do well in three links of seismic fortification
① Seismic fortification requirements are determined: Formulate block
plan、carry out earthquake regionalization、evaluate the safety of
② Aseismic design: Design in accordance with seismic fortification
requirements and seismic design specifications.
③Aseismic construction：Construction shall be carried out in
accordance with the seismic design.
That is to say, establish measures to prevent earthquake disasters
in engineering construction, involves the project planning site
selection, engineering design and construction, until the whole
process of completion acceptance.
Doing well in seismic zoning map
Seismic zoning map is based on seismic intensity or ground motion
parameters, land scope is divided into maps with different seismic
risk degree or seismic fortification grade. This map is the basis
or requirements for seismic fortification of construction projects,
it is also an indispensable basic data for national economic
construction and land use planning. With the continuous progress of
science and technology, zoning map of different periods has different
Application scope of seismic intensity zoning map or ground motion
parameter zoning map: ①Basic data of national economic construction
and land use planning: ②Seismic fortification requirements for
industrial and civil construction: ③ Formulating the basis for
mitigation and prevention of earthquake disasters.
The requirement of zoning map is the minimum standard of seismic
fortification for industrial and civil construction, areas with
better economic conditions, fortification standard can be
appropriately raised to make the house stronger and stronger.
Building house according to the seismic fortification requirements
①Seismic fortification require that construction projects formulated
or audited by the seismic department must reach the criteria and technical
indicators for resisting earthquake damage.
Seismic fortification requires comprehensive consideration of factors
for earthquake environment, importance of the construction project,
allowable level of risk, national economic bearing capacity and Security
objectives to be achieved.
Aseismic capacity of a house depends on the following three main links.
①Whether houses meet the seismic fortification requirements
②Whether houses have been designed according to the national mandatory
③Whether houses strictly guaranty construction quality according to
the standards requirements.
Seismic design code
Aseismic design code is the principles and specific technical requirements
for construction projects meeting the requirements of seismic fortification,
it is a mandatory technical specification that must be followed in aseismic
design. All industries both have aseismic design code, such as railway,
transportation, civil aviation, water conservancy, etc.
3）Which places are the dangerous living conditions of towns
①Housing situated under tall buildings or other overhangs:
②Housing under hazardous materials such as high-voltage lines and transformers:
During the earthquake, electrical equipment, such as short circuit, easily
caught fire, which often endangers housing and personal safety:
③Near dangerous goods producing areas or warehouses.
4）Problems should be pay attention to the rural areas and mountainous areas.
①Vigorously popularize knowledge of building aseismic
②When building a house, choose a safe place first, treat foundation and
foundation base. Avoid building houses in areas where landslides, rolling
Stones are common and possible: treat foundation and foundation base, make
it firm to prevent differential settlement of the house.
③Structural selection of buildings is particularly important. Wenchuan
earthquake and other earthquake damage showed that, aseismic capability of
soil structure is the weakest, of civil structure and brick- wood structure
is also relatively weak. Brick-concrete structure should be pushed in rural
④Reasonable setting and quality of bearing bodies (walls, columns and
components) of building structures are the key to the strong and weak
aseismic capability of structures. For brick-concrete structure, the brick
number, block number, mortar mark, block masonry method and tied steel bar
of the load-bearing wall must have sufficient quality assurance. Wall
thickness should be at least 240mm. Constructional column is also one
of the load-bearing components of the brick concrete structure, and it
is the second line of defense for the housing structure, when the load-bearing
wall is destroyed, the constructional column can support the superstructure
and resist earthquake damage.
⑤Load bearing wall opening hole and window hole should be moderate. Farmers
often open the sunny side windows oversize for light, resulting in pier
between two windows and wall between windows and doors very narrow, this
is not conducive to building aseismic.
⑥Thickness of the non-load bearing partition wall of the house shall be
above 180mm, unfavorable use 120 mm. Otherwise, non - load-bearing partition
wall collapse easily cause casualties when the earthquake occurred.
⑦Prefabricated slabs should not be used for floorslab and roof panels,
cast-in-place reinforced concrete floor slab should be used as far as
possible, the latter can greatly improve the overall performance of the
⑧Reduce weight of the structure as much as possible, avoid top-heavy
construction, this is conducive to improve the seismic capacity of the
⑨Facade and layout of the house and layout of the rooms should be as
regular, uniform, symmetrical and consistent as possible, don't make
big mutations. Examples of sudden changes in roof shape and rooms are
common in earthquakes, such damage and loss can be avoided in construction.
⑩Money spent on excessive decorate of buildings is used to strengthen
the structure's anti-seismic measures.