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Distribution of Tengchong and Wudalianchi Volcanic Group

2019-12-11  |   Editor : houxue2018  

The volcanic distribution in China is related to the margins of two plates:Firstly, a large number of volcanoes in eastern China are formed by the westward subduction of the Pacific plate. The other is the impact of the Indian Ocean plate collision, forming volcanoes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas. There are about 660 volcanoes in China, most of which are extinct volcanoes, mainly distributed in three regions: ①The number of volcanoes around the Mongolian Plateau is the largest, such as the Datong and Wudalianchi volcanic groups; ②Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Zone, such as Tengchong Volcanic Group, Yunnan Province; ③Circum-Pacific Zone, such as Changbai Mountain and Datun Volcanic Group, Taiwan. The northeast region has the largest number of volcanoes in China, with 34 volcanic groups and more than 640 volcanoes. It mainly distributes in Changbai Mountain, Daxing'an Mountains, Northeast Plain (such as Wudalianchi Volcano Group) and Songliao watershed, with the characteristics of wide range of activities, high intensity, many eruption periods and large distribution density (figure. 3-7).

Recent observations and studies have shown that volcanic earthquakes, high heat flows and hydro-thermal activities exist in the volcanic areas of Changbai Mountain and Tengchong, which indicates the potential risk of re-eruption of these volcanoes.

Figure 3-7 Distribution Map of Volcanoes in China (Source: http://www.itren.cn)

Tengchong volcanic area

Located in the southwestern border of Yunnan Province, including the vast majority of Tengchong County and a small part of Lianghe County, it has beautiful mountains, clear rivers, abundant natural resources and numerous cultural landscapes. But the most spectacular landscapes in the region are volcanoes, hot seas and earthquakes. Tengchong is one of the most famous volcanic areas in China, with 68 Cenozoic volcanoes and 139 hot springs. At the same time, Tengchong is a famous seismically active area in western China, which integrates volcanic, geothermal, hot springs and seismicity, which is rare in other parts of the world.

Tengchong Volcanic Group is the most typical Quaternary volcano in China and the youngest Cenozoic dormant volcanic group in the world, also the most complete and spectacular volcanic group preserved in China's volcanic cone, crater and volcanic lake, which is known as "volcanic geology museum". Tengchong volcano is located on the edge of Eurasian continental plate, with active crustal movement and frequent earthquakes. When severe earthquakes occur, landslide and water surges, karst erupts from the surface, when the earthquakes stop, karst will cool down, volcanoes with unique shapes are formed.

Wudalianchi Volcanic Group in Heilongjiang Province

This is a famous Quaternary Volcanic Group in China and the most detailed volcano recorded in China. Located in Wudalianchi City in the north of Heilongjiang Province, it belongs to the remnants of the middle part of the west side of Xiao Xing'an Mountains. Since the Baihe River was blocked by volcanic eruption in 1719-1721, five connected barrier lakes and 14 surrounding volcanic cones were formed, so called Wudalianchi volcanic group, which has well-preserved craters and various volcanic lava structures. If the Lianhua Mountain in the western part of the volcanic area is included, the Wudalianchi Volcanic Group should consist of 15 volcanoes with volcanic rock distribution area of more than 800 k㎡. Recent volcanoes include Laohei Mountain and Huoshao Mountain. Both volcanoes are composed of high-potassium basaltic lava shield and cone with a total area of 68.3 km2, lava shield is the main body of the volcano. It is an active volcano with the most exact historical record, eruption time and location in China.

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