The main disasters in our countries are 5 categories of
more than 30 species, meteorological hydrological disasters,
earthquakes, ocean disasters, biohazard and eco-environmental disaster.
Meteorological hydrological disasters
Meteorological hydrological disasters refer to the natural disasters
because of anomalies caused by the intensity, temporal distribution
and the combinations of the weather and hydrology, which does harm
to the people’s life, property, production and environment.
The disasters including more than 10 types, such as drought, flood,
typhoon, rainstorm, gale, lightning, low temperature, snow, high temperature,
sandstorm and heavy fog.
The drought is very serious in north and the south of China,
the center of northeast, and the southwest and southeast of China,
the average annual drought-affected farmland is 21 million hectares,
with a total area of 6.7 million. Drought is the main cause of food reduction.
At the same time, the lack of water influenced people's life and
production activities. And the excessive pumping of groundwater
leads to the land subsidence, saltwater intrusion, sand land and forest
Floods mainly take place in the downstream of Yangtze River, Huai River,
Yellow River, Hai River, Liao River, Songhua River and Zhu River.
The average annual damage area is 6.67 million hectares, disaster area
is 4.7 million hectares, the deaths are 5000 and the collapsed houses
are more than 2 million. Nearly a half of the country’s population,
a third of the land and more than 90% of the cities are threatened by floods.
China is the world’s few countries who affected most by tropical cyclones,
seven typhoons make landfall in China every year averagely.
The economic loss caused by the typhoon alone amounted to 24.6 billion yuan.
The rainstorm and storm caused by the typhoon made great damage to the
coastal areas of eastern China.
Earthquakes, also known as ground vibrations, are the vibrations
that occur during the rapid release of energy from the earth's crust
and are a natural phenomenon of seismic waves.
The collision in plates on the earth results in faulting and
rupture within the plates and edges , that is the main cause of earthquakes.
The place where the earthquake started was called the hypocenter,
and the ground just above the epicenter is called the epicenter.
The most severe ground vibration of a destructive earthquake is called
a "polar earthquake zone", which is often the epicenter of the earthquake.
Earthquakes often cause heavy secondary casualties, such as fires, floods,
poisonous gas leaks, bacteria, radioactive materials,tsunamis, landslides,
and ground fissures.
Ocean disasters refer to the disasters damaging human life
and property which take place at sea or on shore caused
by the marine's abnormal or drastic change, such as storm surge,
waves, sea ice, tsunami, red tide etc.
Biohazard refers to the disasters which happened in forests and grasslands
because of the biological activities, thunder and lightning
or the damage to crops, trees, animals and facilities caused by pest.
There are mainly diseases, epidemic diseases, mouse trouble and the
disasters of grass and red tide.Biological disasters occur everywhere in different degrees.
Ecological environment disasters
Ecological environment disasters refer to the disasters
which bring bad consequences to the harmonious development of
human relations and human living environment because of the damage
or imbalance of Ecosystem structural, including water and soil loss,
wind erosion and desertification, salinization and stony desertification.
Ecological environment disasters occur everywhere in different degrees
The information is provided from Disaster Risk Reduction Knowledge Service.