The types of disasters are diverse，this article will focus on the remote sensing applications of satellites in major disasters such as floods, earthquakes, fires, landslides and mudslides, and sandstorms.
1.1 Flood disasters
(1)As early as 1983, the Ministry of Water Resources of my country used the Multi-band Scanner System (MSS) data to monitor the floods of the Naoli River in the Sanjiang Plain. Afterwards, the Ministry of Water Resources, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Meteorological Administration, and the Ministry of Civil Affairs and other relevant units conducted a large number of similar research work and achieved certain results in practice.
For example, during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and other units completed the flood disaster remote sensing rapid reporting system, which has two operating modes: the first is the macro monitoring and evaluation of the disaster area. It mainly uses data from NOAA meteorological satellites to conduct macro-monitoring and evaluation of the distribution, inundation range, duration, and impact of the disaster in flood-prone areas across the country twice a day, and provide disaster images, briefings, and inundation losses. Number of statistical reports, etc.
The second is the key monitoring and evaluation of the disaster area. It uses radar satellite and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data, thematic mapper (TM) data, SPOT data and high-resolution data from other sources, combined with geographic information system (GIS) technology, to carry out Multi-level monitoring and detailed assessment, and provide corresponding disaster images, detailed assessment reports, and district classification data tables of disaster losses based on the county, and propose decision-making recommendations for post-disaster reconstruction of homes.
In the catastrophic flood disaster in my country in 1998, the system successively used nearly 80 phases of NOAA data and 18 scenes of RADARSAT data, and carried out the fusion of SAR image data and pre-flood TM data to quickly respond to flood dynamics and crop losses. Evaluation, effectiveness analysis of flood control projects, investigation and analysis of dangerous sections, urban flood monitoring, vulnerability assessment of lifeline projects in industrial areas, analysis of the necessity of flood storage and diversion of Yangtze River floods, decision-making recommendations for disaster prevention and mitigation, and functional zoning planning for post-disaster reconstruction of homes.
(2)The high geometric resolution of IRS-1C and 1D is helpful for detailed assessment of flood disasters. India is one of the most severely flooded countries in the world. For this reason, the Indian Space Research Organization established a Disaster Management System (DMS). The main task of DMS is to provide flood loss assessment information and serve for disaster prevention and relief. IRS-1C and 1D have played a great role in this regard: the impact data on the remote sensing market can provide detailed information on roads (including dirt roads, asphalt roads, motorways and railways, etc.), ditches and embankments, etc. Facilities information, including damage information; LISS data can provide land classification information; wide-angle data (WIFS) can provide flood inundation information, etc. The system played a major role in the relief, anti-disaster and post-disaster assessment of the 1998 flood in India.
(3)The United States is an earlier country. During the 1993 flood disaster of the Mississippi River in the United States, Earth Sa tellite quickly provided the Federal Disaster Relief Agency (Fediral Relief Agencies) with flood inundation maps for rapid disaster relief. The response provided important disaster information, and within a few months after the disaster, the company used TM, ERS-1 and SPOT data to build a flood disaster distribution library.
Practice has proved that satellite remote sensing can play a major role in mitigating flood disaster losses, especially in emergency relief and post-disaster reconstruction. The disaster information provided by satellites is faster, more objective, and comprehensive than other conventional methods.
The law of earthquake preparation and occurrence is very complex, and the application of satellite remote sensing to carry out work in this field is not mature. There are few talents who are familiar with earthquake knowledge and solid grasp of remote sensing theory and image processing technology, which seriously limits the effective application of satellite remote sensing technology in earthquake prediction. In addition, it is very difficult to obtain high-resolution remote sensing satellite data that can be observed repeatedly in a short period in China, which is difficult to meet the requirements of earthquake emergency rescue work supported by detailed ground data. Therefore, satellite remote sensing technology has not been effectively applied in earthquake prevention, earthquake resistance and post earthquake disaster relief and reduction.
With the development of satellite remote sensing technology, this technology can play a role in the following aspects.
(1) Investigation of active faults and seismic rupture zones.
(2) House damage investigation.
(3) Investigation of damage to lifeline engineering.
(4) Interferometric radar (INSAR) technology has been applied to the monitoring of crustal deformation. Foreign experts have successfully applied to the deformation processing of the Lander s earthquake, the deformation monitoring of volcanoes, and the deformation monitoring of landslides in the United States.
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