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Urgency of disaster remote sensing

2021-11-08  |   Editor : houxue2018  
Category : TechnologyProducts

Because the application of remote sensing technology in flood disasters is relatively mature, it is widely used in countries all over the world. However, because the world's cutting-edge problems such as medium and long-term weather forecasts have not been solved, the forecasting work is weak. Its applications mainly focus on rapid response, emergency disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction.

1.1 Current disaster forms

With the rapid development of the economy, the expansion of production scale and the over-exploitation of resources, the loss of natural disasters is increasing year by year. One of its characteristics is that the frequency of occurrence is getting higher and higher. For example, my country experienced catastrophic floods in East China in 1991; crop diseases and insect pests in North China from 1992 to 1995; earthquakes in Lijiang, Yunnan in 1996; catastrophic floods in my country in the summer of 1998; and catastrophic floods in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in 1999 and the Taihu Basin in 1999. disaster. The second is that the loss is getting more and more serious. Since the 1990s in our country, the number of people affected by disasters has increased annually, and the economic losses caused have continued to grow.

1.2 Current status of disaster prevention and mitigation work

Disaster prediction is a worldwide technical problem that has not yet been overcome. For example, the prediction of major disasters such as earthquakes and floods has not yet been fundamentally resolved. Therefore, after a disaster occurs, quickly obtain the disaster situation, including the scope, level, and target of the disaster, especially the damage of the lifeline project. Correct, effective, and high-speed disaster relief decision-making is the most economical and effective means to reduce disaster losses. For post-disaster reconstruction work, it is more necessary to objectively and comprehensively assess the ground conditions before and during the disaster, to provide experience and lessons for the reconstruction work, and to provide a scientific basis for rapid and efficient reconstruction. At present, the acquisition of more reliable disaster loss assessment information mainly relies on traditional ground surveys and historical data. The time taken is too long for the disaster areas in urgent need of assistance, and due to the lag in historical data update, the accuracy is low, so the development of other more effective The method of disaster loss assessment has become inevitable.

1.3 Demand analysis

The current form of disasters requires that effective disaster prevention and mitigation work must:

(1) Disaster prediction. Predict potential disasters, including the time, scope, and scale of occurrence, to prepare for effective disaster prevention;

(2) Disaster monitoring. The introduction of information products on the remote sensing market platform can make disaster monitoring more timely and accurate. The platform can query domestic high-resolution remote sensing images such as Gaofen No. 1, Gaofen No. 2 and Ziyuan No. 3 for monitoring at any time Various disasters, especially the occurrence of major disasters such as floods, droughts, and earthquakes;

(3) Emergency relief. When a major disaster occurs, quickly and accurately provide disaster information is essential for emergency rescue;

(4) Post-disaster reconstruction. Accurate disaster assessment is one of the most important basis for post-disaster reconstruction.

The basis for the successful completion of the above work is to quickly grasp accurate, comprehensive, objective, and intuitive disaster information, and satellite remote sensing can precisely do this.

1.4 Feasibility analysis

At present, the civil satellites in orbit that can be used for disaster reduction and prevention mainly include: SPOT-1, 2 and 4 in France; Landsat-5 and 7 of the United States; "NOAA"; Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) on terra; High resolution satellites Ikonos-2 and QUICKBIRD-2; Canadian radar Satellite-1 (RADARSAT-1); European remote sensing satellite-2 (ERS-2); Indian remote sensing satellite-1c, 1D (IRS-1C, 1D); Israel's eros-a1, China's meteorological satellite and China Pakistan earth resources Satellite-1 (CBERS-1), etc. In the next five years, dozens of satellites will be launched, including SPOT-5, ENVISAT-1, IKONOS-3, orbiting observation satellite-3 (ORBVIEW-3), RADAR SAT-2, successor stars of Eros constellation, CBERS-2 ~ 4, Ocean-1 (HY-1), FY-3 and China's small satellite constellation for environment and disaster monitoring and prediction. The above satellites include a variety of remote sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar, which can be observed all-weather; The resolution includes a variety of medium and high resolutions, and the geometric resolution can be up to 0.5m, which can not only monitor a wide range, but also open windows and enlarge key areas. Therefore, the satellite remote sensing technology at present and in the next five years can basically meet the requirements of disaster information for disaster risk reduction.

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