1.3 Landslides and mudslides
In 2001, people and property casualties caused by landslides and mudslides in our country were huge. Therefore, the prediction and control of landslides and mudslides are particularly urgent. my country has achieved good research results in this area. For example, in 1999, the Hebei Provincial Remote Sensing Center used TM data to predict more than 110 valleys in the southern section of the Taihang Mountains that are prone to debris flow in recent years. The regions are exactly the same.Another example is that relevant units of the Chinese Academy of Sciences successively used data from LANDSAT, SPOT, CBERS, IKONOS and other satellites to dynamically monitor the Yigong landslide in Tibet in 2000. The images clearly showed the disaster area, the victims and the damage after the disaster. Disaster relief provides a certain basis.
International work in this area is also more in-depth. For example, in 1993, when Ecuador suffered a major landslide, relevant experts used LANDSAT satellite data to perform the following tasks in the post-disaster assessment and regional reconstruction:
(1) Analyze the scope and possible impact of the landslide.
(2) Monitoring the conditions and impacts after the flood.
(3) Confirm the destruction of lifelines such as traffic and determine the disaster relief route.
(4) Assess the long-term economic and environmental impact of the upstream and downstream of the landslide.
1.4 Forest fires
When the Great Khingan Mountains fire broke out in 1987, the Chinese Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences discovered for the first time through research that the 7th band of TM is very sensitive to flames, and the images synthesized by the 7th, 4th, and 3rd bands of TM have rich forest fire information. This makes up for the lack of low spatial resolution of NOAA satellites, and can successfully guide people to implement fire prevention and disaster relief. Practice has proved that using TM data to monitor the recovery of fired areas after several years is very effective.
In the United States, Singapore, France, Germany and other countries, it has been proved through practice that the use of satellite radar data such as RADARSAT and ERS can effectively delineate fire-prone areas; using NOAA, LANDSAT, SPOT satellites and related high-resolution data, combined with GIS and GPS technology, an operational system for fire monitoring and disaster relief can be built to provide live fire information, which can clearly display the remote sensing image of the fire range and the environment of the disaster-affected area, and provide the most timely spatial information for the formulation of disaster relief plans.
Satellite remote sensing technology can be used to monitor a variety of disasters, and can also be applied to the following aspects:
(1) Man made disasters. For example, on the second and fifth days after the September 11 terrorist incident in the United States, IKONOS satellite (1 m resolution) obtained the satellite data of the region and compared it with the satellite images before the incident, which provided an important basis for timely and objective assessment of the disaster.
(2) Prevention and control of sandstorms. my country’s Desertification Monitoring Center and other units have carried out research on sand and dust storm remote sensing monitoring technology and disaster impact assessment models. The results show that through the processing and analysis of meteorological satellite cloud image data as the main technical means, it is possible to monitor the formation of sand and dust storms, early warning and Develop and evaluate its degree of harm. my country has established a "satellite remote sensing monitoring and disaster assessment system for sand and dust storms" and has achieved certain results.
(3)Forest pine caterpillar disaster monitoring. Forest pests are one of the major disasters in forestry production, and are known as non-smoke forest fires. In the 1980s, pine caterpillars were severely plagued in the north and south of my country. The remote sensing satellite ground station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences successfully monitored the pest plagues of Gushan Forest Farm in Anhui Province using TM images. Appraisal by the relevant departments, it fully met the requirements of production management.
(4) Land desertification. The main task of the Desertification Monitoring Center established in 1995 is to use satellite remote sensing technology, with the support of GIS, GPS and current communication methods, to conduct regular forecasts and trend forecasts of land desertification, and to propose various countermeasures for desertification prevention and control.
(5) Many cases at home and abroad have shown that remote sensing monitoring has achieved satisfactory results for disasters such as typhoons, tornadoes, forest degradation, frost, soil erosion, and marine oil spill pollution.
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