There are two kinds of volcanic disasters, one is direct disasters
caused by volcanic eruption and the other is indirect disasters caused
by volcanic eruption. In fact, when volcanic erupts, the two types
of disasters happen. Pyroclastic flows, lava flows, volcanic eruptions,
landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc can all lead to volcanic disasters.
Volcanic Pyroclastic Flow disaster
Pyroclastic flows are a common product of large-scale volcanic eruptions.
The eruption of Mount Vesuvius is a typicial example of pyroclastic
flow disaster and one of the largest volcanic eruptions throught history.
At that time, six hot pyroclastic flows buried the prosperous Pompeii
city immediately, causing the disappearance of the city. The city was not
discovered until 1689. Besides, several other famous seaside city aslo
suffered from destruction of different degree.
Indonesia, located in the Pacific belt, is one of the countries with a large number of active volcanoes and volcanic disaster in the city is extremely serious. Mount Tambora erupted in April, 1815 and the pyroclastic flow killed over 10,000 people, like a fierce flood and savage beast. Later, the eruption brought food shortage and epidemics, which killed more than 80,000 people.
Volcanic lava flow disaster
Volcanic eruptions, especially fissure eruptions, flow through larger territory and cover more areas, which cause serious damage. In 1783, Laki volcano erupted and lava burst out through a 16-kilometer fissure and drowned surrounding villages and covered 565 square kilometers, which cause one fifth of Iceland’s population and half of its livestock to die.
Volcanic debris and volcanic ash disaster
Usually, volcanic eruptions throw up a great deal of volcanic debris
and ash, which can bury houses, destroy buildings and threaten people’s life.
In January, 1951, Mount Lamington in Papua New Guinea erupted and blazing
volcanic ash destroyed more than 200 square kilometers of land, causing
the collapse of buildings and the loss of 2942 people. In 1963, the eruption
of Argonne volcano in Indonesia killed more than 1670 people directly due
to the volcanic ash cloud.
Volcanic gas disaster
Volcanic eruptions are often accompanied by large amounts of gas.
Some toxic gases released by volcanic eruptions can kill people.
In August 1986, the Nivas Cameroon volcanic erupted and more than
1700 people died of a great deal of harmful gases, such as carbon dioxide.
Volcanic triggeres mudslide
Mudslides is quite destructive fluid caused by volcanic eruption,
which can cause serious damage to regions it runs through.
In 1980, Mount st.Helens erupted and the blazing volcanic debris
and lava melted a large area of ice and snow, forming turbulent
debris flow consequently, which poured down from the top of the mountain
and caused flood, where 24 people died and 46 people missed.
In 1985, Mount Waddol Ruiz in Colombia erupted and the volcanic debris
dissolved ice cap on mountain, resulting in a massive mudslide
that killed more than 20,000 people and left over 7,700 people destitute