Analysis of geological disaster remote sensing survey
1, the background of the investigation and research
The results show that the main causes of the genetic background of geological
disasters are as follows: ① precipitation in time; ② annual average precipitation;
③ the slope of the ground; ④ loose bulk thickness and distribution;
⑤ tectonic development level; ⑥ vegetation development status;
⑦ human engineering activity level.
Because meteorological satellites can monitor rainfall intensity
and precipitation in real time, terrestrial resources satellites
not only have a comprehensive and systematic ability to investigate surface
features,but also their infrared band and microwave band have the role of
investigation and analysis of the characteristics of underground
shallow features. Therefore, in the above eight factors in the
background of the disaster,The first and second factors can be
investigated by meteorological satellite and ground hydrological
observation station.The factors can be identified by terrestrial
resource satellites and appropriate field survey data.
The use of remote sensing technology to effectively investigate and
study geological disasters is a geological hazard investigation of
the most basic and most important work content.
2, geological disasters, the status quo investigation and zoning
Geological hazards as a special bad geological phenomenon, whether it
is landslide, collapse, debris flow and other disaster individuals,
or by the combination of the formation of disaster groups.In the scale
of the earthquake disaster, the size of geological disasters (eg:collision,
slippery and mud), Morphological characteristics and inbreeding
characteristics, are directly from the remote sensing image interpretation
delineation. Thus, the target area has occurred in the geological hazards
and geological hazards hidden point of a comprehensive system to
investigate their points,Scale, formation reasons, development characteristics,
development trends and harmfulness and influencing factors through remote sensing
interpretation of geological disasters. On this basis, to realize geological hazard zoning,
divide the geological disaster prone area, assess the degree of easy development,
and prevent geological hazards, thus the establishment of geological disaster monitoring
network provides basic information.
3, dynamic monitoring and early warning of geological disasters
The occurrence of geological disasters is slow and peristaltic geological
bodies (such as landslides, etc.), from quantitative to qualitative changing process.
Under normal circumstances,the peristaltic rate of the geological disaster is small
and stable, but it will increase suddenly when the disaster comes.
As the global satellite positioning system (GPS) differential accuracy of
millimeter level, to meet the accuracy requirements for peristaltic disaster monitoring.
Therefore, the use of satellite positioning system can be the whole process of
dynamic monitoring of geological disasters,On this basis, it can be used to effectively
predict geological disasters, forecast even proclaims and alerts.
4, disaster real-time (quasi-real) investigation and loss assessment
The destruction of geological disasters includes personnel and livestock
casualties, villages, industrial and mining, traffic arteries, bridges,
hydraulic construction or other property losses and land, forests,
waters and other natural resources. Using remote sensing technology
for geological disaster investigation,in addition to personnel and
livestock casualties can not be statistics, the destruction of
engineering facilities and natural resources can realize real-time or
quasi-real-time investigation and assessment, providing accurate basis
for disaster relief work .
5, the geological disaster remote sensing survey of the main problems still exist
(1)Remote sensing technology has not been widely used. In the
geological disaster investigation team, the current remote sensing
technology is relatively unfamiliar, so it difficult to play its due role
in the investigation of geological disasters.
(2)Geological disasters, remote sensing survey work requires more
real-time or quasi-real-time remote sensing information source,
and this information source is expensive.
It is difficult to get popularization by remote sensing investigation
of geological disasters, and it is only limited to geological disasters
in key areas and key projects.
(3)The current commonly used remote sensing information source space
resolution is small, it is difficult to meet the geological disaster
point of the detailed investigation work. As a result, remote sensing
technology only widely used in the macro-survey, and in the micro-applied less.