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The main stream of the Songhua River
2018-05-22  |   Editor : houguangbing  
Category : Natural Sciences

The trunk stream riverway was basically a plain type of wide shallow river and there were multiple bifurcations, sandbars, and red heart beaches in the river. The whole trunk stream was open to navigation in the thawing period. It was a river in the Northeast areas whose shipping was relatively developed. The river network between the two sides of the river developed in the main stream and there were a lot of tributaries. The catchment area of 794 tributaries was equal to or greater than 50 km2. Among them, the accumulated water area of 646 tributaries was between 50 km2 and 300 km2. The accumulated water area of 104 tributaries was between 300 km2 and 1000 km2. The accumulated water area of 33 tributaries was between 1000 km2 and 5000 km2. The accumulated water area of 3 tributaries was between 5000 km2 and 10000 km2. The accumulated water area of 8 tributaries was greater than 10000km2. Since the confluence of the Sanchahe, it's right bank tributaries from above down were Lalin river, Ashihe river, Feiketu river, Jiaban river, Mayi river, Mudanjiang river, Weiken river and Business river. The tributaries of the left bank were Hulan river, Piao river, Shaoling river, Magnolia river, Chalin river, Xibei river, The four river, Tangwang river, Heli river, Ng Tung River and the Du Lu river in turn.

The full length of the upper of the main stream was 240 kilometers and the area of the interval water collection was 30 thousand km2. The river channel flowed through the grasslands of the low plain of the Songnen River and the wetland. Harbin city was located at the end of the right bank of this section of the river. There were shipping wharves near Harbin. The ports and dovetails were the main collecting and distributing centre of water transport materials. This section was the key area of the Songhua River flood control district. The upper part of the river was the famous Sanzhao areas. The flood prevention barrier in the Sanzhao areas and the upper reaches of Harbin--the dike of Sanzhao was directly connected with the left bank levee in Harbin City, so the flood control in the Harbin city on the right bank was the key point.

From Harbin to Jiamusi was the middle section of the mainstream of Songhua River. The length of the river was 432km and the river ran through among the cliffs, low hills and the grass. From Harbin to Tonghe Xian, the length of the river was 221km and the river road was relatively gentle. It's between 0.044% and 0.055%. In this section of the river that was 27km apart from the downstream of Harbin. The Hulan river flowed into the left bank of the main stream. After a further downlink of 20km, the river channel entered the low hills and hilly areas whose length was 130km. Both coasts were the Zhangguangcai range and Xiao Hinggan Mountains Piedmont transition zone. The river valley was narrower and the both sides were upland plains and hilly areas. Therefore, the dikes of the two sides of the Taiwan Straits were in a discontinuous state and connected to the highland. The river flowed through Bayan, Mulan, Fangzheng, Tonghe and other counties. Shaoling river and Magnolia river that were located in the left bank, Mayi river that was located in the right bank, all of which were injected into the main stream in the upstream of Tonghe river.

Since the Tonghe County riverway down about 70km, from Shahezi to Mudan River of Yilan County, long about 27 km and the water surface of the river channel's wide was 1.5km to 2km, sloping 0.06% to 0.15%. In the middle and low water period, the depth of water was only 1m. Water depth was less than 1m in the dry water period and the flow rate was only 1m/s. The width of the shipping route was between 500m and 600m. There were many islands, sandbars and reefs in the riverway. There were lots of rocks above the water. It was often called babysbreath or iron threshold and became famous navigation riverway in the upper reaches of the Songhua river. In recent years, renovation and dredging beach have been carried out and the depth of navigable water has increased slightly. The right bank of the main stream was the city of Yilan. There were Mudanjiang and the tributaries of the weiken river successively remitting to the river. Yilan county was located at the intersection of the main stream of the Songhua river, Mudanjiang and the weiken river, which was the key city for flood control. From Yilan to Tangyuan, there was Tangwanghe river abouchement in the left bank. After the river reached to Tangyuan, the riverway flowed downwards about 40km and reached the Jiamusi.

From Jiamusi to Tongjiang river, the total length of the river channel was 267km. It went through the Sanjiang plain and the cross-strait was the alluvial plain. The ground was flat and there were many weeds. The riverway and the bottomland were more open. The tributaries of the riverway flowed freely. The width of the bottomland was between 5km to 10km and there were a lot of shoals in the riverway. From Jiamusi flowing down about 40km to the county town of Huachuan, this section of the river was basically stable. Under Huachuan, there were branches in the left bank, such as the Ng Tung River and the Du Lu River. From Huachuan flowing down 126km to Suibin County, there were lots of sandbanks, islets, hidden shoals and branches. The riverbed was composed of sediments and clays. The effects of alluvium and siltation were comparatively obvious. After Suibin, from the Songhua river flowing down 23km to Fujin County. There was a Gaerdang shoal whose length was12km in the upper reaches of the county town. The width of the water surface of the river channel was between 2km and 2.5km when the water was flat. The river had many branches and sandbanks that obstructed navigation. The river from Fujin to the Northeast flow 78km to Tongjiang County that was Hezhe Minority's gathering place. The river was rich in all kinds of fish, especially the Salmon. The mainstream of Songhua River injected into Heilongjiang in the Tongjiang County. The whole downstream riverway belonged to a part of bei da huang that was flat and under the nine river. It had been one of the key areas of flood control over the years. In recent years, the rich dyke had been built as a flood barrier on the right bank of the river road.

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