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The characteristics of the Songhua River Basin

2018-08-16  |   Editor : houguangbing  
Category : Natural Sciences

The water system of the Songhua River basin was well developed and the tributaries were numerous. There were 68 rivers with a total area of more than 1000 square kilometers and 16 rivers with a total area of more than 10000 square kilometers. The upper reaches of the river were controlled and affected by the mountains of Da Hinggan Mountains and Changbai Mountain respectively. The water system developed into a branch shaped river network and the length of each tributary channel was relatively short. In the hilly and plain areas of the middle and lower reaches, the river was more straight and longer.

The upper reaches of Songhua River originated from the north and the south. The north was Nenjiang River and the south was Di’er Songhua Jiang. Further more, the South source originated from Changbai Mountain Tianchi. Customarily, people like to consider of the river from Changbai mountain pool in the sky as the mains ource of Di’er Songhua Jiang River. Nenjiang River originated in the southern part of middle branch of Mount elholi of the Greater Khingan Range , where the source was called the South urn river. The height above sea level of the river source was 1030m. After flowing about 172km from the source of the river to the southeast, it converged with the Ergen river near the twelfth station forest farm, then called Nenjiang River. Nenjiang River was called the main stream of Songhua River after meeting with Di’er Songhua Jiang in the vicinity of the three Cha River in Fuyu County, Jilin province and the main stream flowed to Heilongjiang River near the Tongjiang from the right bank. If the North source was calculated from Nenjiang River, the total length of Songhua River river was 2309km and if the south source was calculated from Di’er Songhua Jiang and Changbai mountain pool in the sky , the total length of Songhua River river was 1897km.

There were more than 600 lakes and marshes in the basin, which was a characteristic of the basin. Most of these lakes and marshes were distributed in the lower reaches of Di’er Songhua Jiang, downstream of Nenjiang River main stream, the tributaries of the lower reaches of Nenjiang River, such as the Wuyue River, Shuangyang River and Taoerhe river. The low-lying areas of the Songnen Plain of the lower reaches of the huolin River and the downstream area of the Songhua River main stream also had these lakes and marshes. Some lakes and marshes were on the river road or on the side of river road, connecting to the river road, like Jingbo Lake, Yueliangpao Reservoir, Xianghai Lake and Lianhuan Lake. These lakes could play a certain role in regulating and storing flood , and could be used in flood control. Some lakes and marshes were located in dunes or the low-lying areas of the inland plain and didn’t have direct connection with the River Road. For example, Chagan lake, Boluo lake and a group of lakes and marshes in Daqing area.

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