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Land Cover of Mongolia

2020-05-21  |   Editor : houxue2018  

Land cover refers to various biological or physical coverage types of the land surface. Human activities and natural processes continuously change land cover. Land cover dynamics can change the carbon storage capacity of an ecosystem and ground albedo and affect the energy distribution and material circulation of the landscape. Among the most important components of global change, land use/land cover (LULC) change plays a vital role in sustainable development of regions. LULC is also among the most important factors affecting the natural ecosystems of the earth and can lead to global warming and ecological environmental problems by affecting the composition of the atmosphere and the exchange of energy between continents and the atmosphere. Along with the increasing need for land, problems caused by LULC changes are increasing, including land degradation, rapid biodiversity loss, and frequent natural disasters Mongolia, the second largest inland country, is in the hinterland of the Mongolia Plateau. It has a diverse, fragile, and sensitive ecological environment and the quality of the environment directly or indirectly influences the Northeast Asia ecosystem. During recent years, there have been significant changes in the use of resources and the environment in Mongolia because of its rapid climate change and national constitution reform. Because of global warming and increased evaporation, a large number of rivers and lakes have dried up, accelerating land desertification. Moreover, since the nation entered the market system during the early 1990s, the property rights for grass pastures have correspondingly changed, leading to unplanned utilization of grass pastures, and as a result, considerable degradation. Until 2017, the data from Natural Environmental and Tourism Department of Mongolia showed that 76.8% of the national land had suffered varying degrees of desertification. Caused by drought, deforestation, and continued forest fires, forested areas have been greatly reduced, resulting in frequent meteorological disasters; the number of sandstorms occurring in the Mongolian Gobi Desert has increased by four to five times over the last century.

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