Environmental Science and Policy
Domestic water supply, residential water use behaviour, and household willingness to pay: The case of Banda Aceh, Indonesia after ten years since the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Water supply; Use behaviour; Willingness to pay; Utility; Banda Aceh;
In this study, we developed a preliminary assessment of current domestic water supply and use in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, a city that was hardest hit by the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004. The motivation was to develop understanding of the status and future direction for improvement of domestic water supply after 10 years of post-tsunami reconstruction. For this purpose, we collected primary and secondary information from both water utility and residential households. In particular, we conducted household survey to examine water use behaviour in relation to domestic water supply by local utility, public perception on water supply service, and household willingness to pay (WTP) for reliable water supply. Our study results show that domestic water supply in the city has been improving in service coverage but is subject to high percentages of non-revenue water, financial loss, and poor performance. Despite available tap water, residential households access multiple water sources differentially between drinking and non-drinking purposes. All survey respondents are willing to pay for reliable water supply service, with median WTP estimated at approximately 190% of current household monthly water bill. Most respondents have a concentrated WTP distribution whose mean depends mainly on household income, family size, and water use behaviour. The study findings fill in the knowledge gap in the literature while informing improvement of domestic water supply in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.