International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
Livelihood changes in Banda Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Livelihood assets; Tsunami impacts; Post-disaster; Disaster recovery;
The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami disaster heavily affected Indonesia, particularly Aceh Province, leaving devastating impacts to people and their livelihoods. The tsunami wiped out coastal areas, causing permanent land loss and destroying aquaculture ponds and mangrove forests. This resulted in disruption in the community’s sources of income, especially to those who rely on aquaculture activities as well as on gathering resources from the sea. This paper analyses households’ livelihood changes in Pande Village, Banda Aceh City by assessing livelihood assets before, immediately after, and 12 years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami disaster in Indonesia. Data from 77 households were collected in a survey conducted in September 2016. This study tracked the changes in the human, financial, physical, natural, and social assets of the households to understand how these changes led to livelihood outcomes and eventually to disaster recovery. One of the findings is that the destruction of aquaculture ponds and mangroves significantly reduced the potential of reviving livelihoods that were mainly relying on coastal resources. As a consequence, households took up non-aquaculture livelihood activities, such as going into business, driving rickshaws, and providing manual labour, to support their family.