Chlorophyll-a concentration is an important indicator of eutrophication. The methodology for the dataset processing was as follows: first, water body spectral information of Poyang Lake was measured in the field, and a spectral index was constructed based on the analysis of the spectral characteristics of the water. Then sensitive band intervals were calculated by regression analysis, based on the least squares method combined with measured chlorophyll-a concentration data. MODIS data was used to build chlorophyll-a concentration estimation models of Poyang Lake by a semi-empirical method and the accuracy of the results was verified. Finally, chlorophyll-a concentration distribution data of Poyang Lake in January, April, July, and October from 2009 to 2012 was inversed using these models.